11.1.18

Why does myocardial infarction occur

Myocardial infarction happens unexpectedly, and it occurs because of a disturbance of the blood supply to a certain part of the heart muscle. This acute condition causes problems with all organs of the cardiovascular system and poses a real threat to life.

 

What causes myocardial infarction?

Insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle (or rather, to the heart middle layer, myocardium) is the main reason of this acute condition. It can occur due to atherosclerosis, which is characterized by the appearance of plaques on the vascular walls that prevent proper blood circulation.

In addition, there are other factors that can lead to myocardial infarction:

  • Age category 45+ (at this age people most often suffer from this disease),
  • Sex (women have this acute condition twice as often as men),
  • Hypertension (in case of high pressure, the need of the heart muscle for the oxygen supply also increases),
  • Smoking or being near smokers (it causes narrowing of the coronary arteries, which leads to insufficient amount of oxygen entering the myocardium),
  • Hypodynamia that leads to excessive weight (metabolic disorder leads to atherosclerosis and hypertension development),
  • Diabetes mellitus (increased level of blood glucose negatively affects the vascular walls and the oxygen supply).

How can you recognize myocardial infarction?

This condition has pretty special symptoms, so it’s hard not to notice them. However, do not forget that there are atypical forms of myocardial infarction, which can mislead even a doctor.

Patients often suffer from the regular form of this disease with severe pain in the chest that radiates to the left arm and the area between the shoulder blades. Such pain can not necessarily occur after physical activity, sometimes the pain appears even at night, when a person is at rest.

Sometimes, the pain in myocardial infarction can be taken for angina attack, but in the first case, the pain may persist for half an hour or more.

When it comes to an atypical form of myocardial infarction, its symptoms can be similar to the symptoms of other diseases, for example:

  • Gastritis (when pain occurs in the epigastric area),
  • Arrhythmia (when there is a strong disturbance of the heart rhythm),
  • Asthma (when there are pulmonary rale, suffocation, coughing).

In this acute condition, a person can sometimes complain of headache, dizziness, sickliness, vomiting and nausea.

Myocardial infarction may not cause any pain feelings at all, however, some discomfort may be present in the patient’s chest. In addition, an increased sweating is observed in the suppressed form of the disease.

Disease treatment

When myocardial infarction symptoms appear, it is necessary to promptly call a doctor and provide first aid, which consists of the following actions:

  • Place the patient so that his head is higher than the body,
  • Provide the influx of fresh air,
  • Give the patient a sedative,
  • Crush nitroglycerin and aspirin (1 table of each medication) and provide the patient with a sufficient amount of pure water,
  • In case of severe pain, give the patient an analgesic,
  • Provide artificial respiration and perform closed-chest massage, if the patient’s pulse and breathing are absent.

It is very important to transfer the patient in charge of experienced doctors as soon as possible for the delivery of qualified care. A doctor will stop a pain episode, restore blood flow and decide whether to transport the patient to a hospital or not.

 


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11.1.18  20:55